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口腔癌

口腔癌是頭頸癌的一種,泛指在口腔(嘴唇、牙齒、牙齦、舌頭的前三分之二、
舌頭下方的口底、硬顎、牙齦和智齒後面的區域)生長的惡性腫瘤1
一部份口腔癌和HPV有關1

過去10年,香港每年口腔癌的新症數目均有上升的趨勢2。 口腔癌的風險隨著年齡而增加,45歲或以上的人士更容易患上口腔癌3
男性患上口腔癌的機會是女性的2倍4

口腔癌病徵

常見的口腔癌症狀包括口腔內有不正常的腫脹、增厚或出現白色或紅色的斑塊、口腔潰爛、疼痛或麻木5。有些病人可能會有張口不易、舌頭活動困難等症狀,這些都是口腔癌病徵5

上述症狀並非一定都是口腔癌引致的。但出現上述疑似口腔癌病徵時應提高警覺。若上述症狀持續,如口腔潰爛持續兩周且沒有好轉的跡象應儘速到醫院做進一步的口腔檢查5

口腔癌存活率

越早求診和發現患癌就能及早使用適合的治療方法,從而有較佳的治療效果及存活率。根據英國癌症研究中心轄下一項統計,當地口腔癌1年存活率超過75%,而5年或以上的存活率有約55%6

口腔癌治療

醫生將按口腔癌患者腫瘤的階段、發展趨勢及病人的自身健康狀況,為其選取最合適的治療方法7。治療口腔癌的常見方式包括:外科手術、放射治療、化療等7,8

若是較早期的口腔癌治療,醫生會通過手術切除病變組織和部分位於腫瘤附近的健康組織7。如醫生確認癌細胞已擴散到淋巴結或需要預防性措施,則會連同相關的淋巴結一併切除7

放射治療也是口腔癌的常用治療方法7,8。放射治療可單獨使用於癌細胞並或視情形需要合併手術及放射治療。口腔癌患者接受放射治療後,有機會出現口腔潰瘍、失去味覺、食慾不振、口乾舌燥、等副作用8

預防口腔癌

儘管並非所有的口腔癌都可以預防,但如果採取適當的預防措施還是可以降低患上口腔癌的風險。我們應避免進行口交和擁有多於一位性伴侶,從而降低患上HPV相關的口腔癌風險9,10。除此以外,定期進行牙齒檢查也可以幫助患者及早發現口腔癌,牙醫可能會在常規口腔檢查中發現癌前病變的跡象10


References: 1. American Cancer Society. What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers? Available at: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/oral-cavity-and-oropharyngeal-cancer/about/what-is-oral-cavity-cancer.html. Accessed on: 23 Feb 2023. 2. Hong Kong Cancer Registry. Hong Kong Cancer Statistics. Oral cavity all cases. Available at: https://www3.ha.org.hk/cancereg/allagesresult.asp. Accessed on: 23 Feb 2023. 3. Canadian Cancer Society. Risk factors for oral cancer. Available at: https://cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-types/oral/risks. Accessed on: 15 Mar 2023. 4. American Cancer Society. Key Statistics for Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/oral-cavity-and-oropharyngeal-cancer/about/key-statistics.html. Accessed on: 23 Feb 2023. 5. American Cancer Society. Signs and Symptoms of Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/oral-cavity-and-oropharyngeal-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging/signs-symptoms.html. Accessed on: 23 Feb 2023. 6. Cancer Research UK. Survival for mouth and oropharyngeal cancer. Available at: https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/mouth-cancer/survival. Accessed on 23 Feb 2023. 7. National Health Service. Treatment-Mouth cancer. Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/mouth-cancer/treatment/. Accessed on: 23 Feb 2023. 8. American Cancer Society. Treatment Options for Oral Cavity Cancer by Stage. Available at: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/oral-cavity-and-oropharyngeal-cancer/treating/by-stage.html. Accessed on: 23 Feb 2023. 9. American Cancer Society. Can Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers Be Prevented? Available at: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/oral-cavity-and-oropharyngeal-cancer/causes-risks-prevention/prevention.html. Accessed on: 07 Mar 2023. 10. American Society of Clinical Oncology Cancer.Net. Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer: Risk Factors and Prevention. Available at: https://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/oral-and-oropharyngeal-cancer/risk-factors-and-prevention. Accessed on: 07 Mar 2023. 


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